The “Chamber Arias” by Nicola Vaccaj (Tolentino, 1790 – Pesaro, 1848), composed without interruption throughout his whole life, were enormously successful in the 19th century, so much so that they were printed by the major publishers of the time and circulated throughout Europe just like the “errant Bees” of the title of one of his canzonettas. The lyrical content, set to music, moves between Arcadian and Romantic sentiment: as well as the poetry of Metastasio, there is the poetry of poet-friends such as Conte Pagani- Cesa, Carlo Pepoli, Angela Veronese, and of Vaccaj himself and many others. No complete catalogue exists of the vocal chamber repertoire of Nicola Vaccaj, who regularly gave away his compositions, set to music specially for his students of singing and for his friends, for poets and commissioning publishers. Therefore apart from the most famous ones – which were printed at the time and preserved in the major Italian libraries – and the autographic manuscripts from the Vaccaj trust fund preserved in the Filelfica Library of Tolentino, most have been lost or, at worst, destroyed. Thanks to the chronological content published by Giulio Vaccaj in the 19th century biography “Life of Nicholas Vaccaj”, we have been able to subdivide his production into three phases, and for each phase we chose ariettas, songs (“canzoncine”) and vocal chamber romances which give an excellent insight into the course of development of the creative inspiration of the Tolentino master. 1816-1824: Venice and Trieste Having completed his studies in Rome and Naples, Vaccaj, on the advice of his teacher Paisiello, arrived in Venice in 1816 to pursue a career in the theatre. Here the name of Rossini (who at the age of 23 had composed as many as 15 musical works) was already famous, and Vaccaj was discouraged by the lukewarm reception of his early musical dramas. To support himself, he was constrained to make a living as a singing teacher – but with unexpected success. Following a failed love affair, he found it impossible to live any longer in his beloved Venice and, in 1820, he accepted the invitation of Chiara Minerbi, the wife of a rich Trieste merchant, to move to Trieste, where he soon became a maestro very much in vogue. The collection “Sei Canzoncine” belongs to this period, published by Ricordi in 1824 and dedicated to Chiara Minerbi, based on lyrics by Count Giuseppe Urbano Pagani-Cesa, the author of many of the poems set to music by Vaccaj. The ariettas were very successful and spread everywhere as Ricordi’s letters testify. His amateur singer friend Francesco Kandler, to whom the collection “Sei ariette per Mezzosoprano” was dedicated (published by Ricordi in 1826), wrote to him from Vienna: “…that they pleased everyone, that everyone wanted to hear and repeat them, and that they were on the lectern of every lover of song”1. The lyrics of Vaccaj’s early compositions reproduce the bucolic and pastoral themes so beloved of Arcadian literature.